Category: Industrial Technology

Fake or not? Choosing a ball valve.

Thanks to the reliability and durability of ball valves the market demand is constantly growing. However, the other side of the medal is that high demand always generates the production of poor quality and fake products, the use of which puts in jeopardy the operation of the entire complex. And this is where a logical question arises – how to distinguish a fake from the original?

The demand for ball valves increases due to the excellence of their design, strict control of the chemical composition of materials and manufacturing technology. A counterfeit manufacturers ignore all these factors and, under the guise of well-known brands, creating something that looks like the original.

Production materials matter

Ball valves, or at least the valve body must be made of brass, which is regulated by the composition corresponds to the national standard. As a rule, such standards provide a zinc content of 60%, lead content in the range 0.8-1.9%, and 57-60% of copper. Fake valves are typically made of non-ferrous scrap, and nobody actually cares about the percentage of metals. As a result, for example, the lead content can be up to 5 – 7%, and it is harmful to human health.

Another type of forgery is the use of a cheaper material for body – zinc. The use of such equipment poses certain risks. Due to the increased fragility it can crack during mechanical action or differential pressure. Add to this the impact of chlorine water on the zinc (a solution which is formed from chlorine and zinc – zinc chloride is carcinogenic), whereby products become thinner and less reliable. There are valves made of aluminum and their body is quite thin – 0.5 – 1mm, while reputable manufacturers stick to wall thickness of no less than 2 mm.

Production methods

But this is not limited to ways to save at forging cranes. Leading manufacturers of ball valves made by hot forging or hot pressing. In order to save counterfeits produce castings. Therefore, they differ from the original products uneven surface of the housing, the influx, and the material has a heterogeneous structure whereby poor reliability. Ball valves, too fake, not producing them in brass and stainless steel, so they rust and leak disappears crane. A crane branded manufacturers pay great attention to the rotary valve. Brass balls exposed diamond grinding, and then they are coated with nickel or chromium. As a result, the ball gets a perfect mirror surface. We forged a spherical surface dull and rough.

Experts say that there are fake, where construction cranes modified to reduce the cost of production at the expense of quality.

It is best to buy a ball valve at the official distributors of these firms. Thus, for example, if you are looking to purchase Orseal products, you should better order a shipping through sales representatives, or, as an option, you may want to look Orseal ball valves and industrial ball valves online. If it is not possible, you can call the official distributor and ask whether the reseller you are going to deal with is on the list. Manufacturers on Internet sites often place drawings of the products and put descriptions, so by checking the original labels, the size, weight and dimensions of this or that product you can understand whether it is a genuine quality product or a fake one.

The Goals and objectives of directional borehole drilling

The configuration of the borehole is defined by a good number of aspects, with the most crucial among them as follows:

  • The type of the site: whether a single well or well cluster is planned to be built;
  • The drilling obstacles
  • The location of the filter (vertical, inclined or horizontal).

The configuration of the borehole should provide:

  • High quality of operation;
  • Minimum load on the drilling equipment during tripping operations;
  • Free passage of instruments and devices through the borehole;
  • Reliable operation of downhole equipment;
  • The ability of applying the methods of simultaneous operation of multiple horizons in multilayer deposits;
  • The minimum cost of works.

When drilling directionally the profile of boreholes should have a predetermined grid of field development as well as an economically rational number of wells in the area. The aim of directional drilling is to hit the calculation downhole in a predetermined point of the reservoir. As a rule, this point is set on the roof of the producing formation and is the center of range of tolerance.

Directional drilling is successfully applied in a variety of industries and appreciated by industry experts for:

  • Broad range of usage – oil and gas excavation in industrial, residential and natural areas;
  • Savings of land and forests allocated for the construction of a drilling station;
  • Cost savings for the construction of foundations, access roads, power lines, communications and pipelines;
  • Reducing the cost and time for construction and installation;
  • Effective in case of mounting sinking shafts on oil reservoirs, lying under salt domes, due to the difficulty of drilling: erosion of salt deposits, the deterioration of the mud, lost circulation, cutting rock drilling and casing, stuck pipe due to the formation of crystallization coat, etc .;

The basics of directional wells design

Design configuration of directional wells implies selecting the type and profile view, in determining the necessary parameters:

  • The depth and wellbore deviation from the vertical;
  • The length of the vertical section;
  • Limiting values of the radii of curvature and zenith angles of the borehole in the range of installation and operation of downhole equipment, design and depth.

The directional wells configurations are selected according to:

  • Purpose of the well;
  • Geological and technological features of the wiring;
  • Establishing restrictions on the zenith angle of the borehole in the range of installation and operation of downhole equipment associated with its design features and operating conditions;
  • Limits on the angle of the borehole depth.

The project for the construction of directional wells drilling includes all the standard aspects for the process: geological and technical-technological substantiation of the coordinate space of emplacement and target depth, well and filtering construction, surface equipment and drilling tools, drilling modes different intervals, technology of productive layers and completions opening.

The entire cycle of project implementation can be carried out by a single company: thus, if you are looking to delegate directional borehole drilling, consider the option of partnering with European Geophysical Services. The savvy geophysics business, boasting a talented and proficient staff as well as an affordable pricing model, is involved in Wireline logging for more than 10 years, demonstrating decent results and making hundreds of customers happy.

Portland Cement Alternatives

In some cases it is advisable to use binders cheaper than Portland cement and its species. These binders are building lime (air and hydraulic types), gypsum binders and liquid glass.

Building lime is obtained by firing calcium-magnesium carbonate rock at 900 – 1200°C, without bringing the material before sintering. The raw material for the manufacture of building lime are rocks in which structure is dominated by calcium carbonate (CaC03) and magnesium (MgC03): chalk, limestone, dolomite and marly limestone. These formations may be in admixture of clay in varying amounts (up to 20%), which affects the quality of the roasting binder. When the content of clay of 6% is obtained in air lime, and if the carbonaceous feedstock contains 6 – 20% as for argillaceous impurities, hydraulic lime can be obtained.

In the process of roasting carbonate rocks are decomposed by the reaction of CaCO3 = CaO + C02 under the influence of heat. Carbon dioxide is removed from the furnace together with combustion products. The same pattern is actual for MgC03 dissociation.

The main product of firing – air lime – thus consists of calcium and magnesium oxides. Depending on the ratio of CaO/MgO air lime is divided into the following types: calcium, dominated CaO magnesian (MgO 5 to 20%) and dolomite (MgO in the range of 20 … 40%). The most high-calcium include air lime. Quicklime and slaked (hydrated) lime air should also be considered. Quicklime, which consists of CaO and MgO is known in two types: lump (pieces of 10 – 20 mm) and hammer.

Slaked lime, which is most often used in construction by proven, innovative agencies, such as a UK-based Telling Comapny, widely utilising hydraulic lime and lime mortar solutions, is obtained by acting on the lump quicklime with water: CaO + H20 = Ca (OH) 2. The process is accompanied by the release of heat in large amounts – up to 1160 kJ/kg. Lime mass of strongly heated, and large lumps spontaneously disintegrates into fine particles with a size of 5 – 20 microns (less than that of Portland cement). Air lime is the only mineral binder, which can be ground and not only by mechanical, but also by chemical means.

Taking the lump lime mixing different amounts of water, get different types of hydrated lime. Hydrated lime is a very thin and light powder, which is formed by slaking a relatively small amount of water (1 part water to 1 part of lime). By consistently increasing the amount of water lime paste, milk of lime and lime water is prepared.

Lime putty has a high ductility, which is caused by the content of ultrafine particles of Ca (OH) 2 of 0.02 … 0.5 mm. This particular feature of the test is used for the plasticizing of mortars. The main indicators of air lime quality is the content of active oxides of calcium and magnesium, as well as unslaked grains. The higher the content of CaO + MgO, the more plastic lime paste and higher grade lime. Unslaked particles are available in two types: incomplete combustion and burnout.

Lifting Equipment – A Comprehensive Look

The performance of primary and secondary manufacturing operations, comprehensive mechanization and automation of production processes in all areas of the economy would be unthinkable without the use of a wide range of lifting equipment. Modern in-line technology and automated production lines, interdepartmental intrashop transport, loading and unloading operations in warehouses and trans-shipment points are organically linked with the use of various types of lifting systems – transport machines and mechanisms to ensure the continuity and rhythm of production processes. Therefore, the use of this equipment largely determines the efficiency of modern production and the level of mechanization of technical production – degree of excellence and productivity.

With modern production intensity can not ensure its steady rhythm without a coherent and reliable operation of the means of transportation of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products at all stages of processing and storage.

There is a wide variety of lifting machines designed for all kinds of operations: vertical and horizontal transportation, at any distance and weight. The crane device typically consists of a series of successive operations: the capture of a single piece of cargo,lifting, moving to the necessary position and getting back to the starting position to capture the next cargo and its subsequent lifting and moving.

Lifting and moving can be performed both continuously and sequentially (cycles). The correct choice of the lifting equipment is a major factor in normal operation and high efficiency. Modern high-lifting machines with high speed and increased load capacity keep on popping out in the market due to a high demand. Thus, Granada Material Handling, a seasoned manufacturing, lifting equipment inspection and lifting equipment services expert business, reports of 12% increase in line-up positions since the year of 2012.

Powerful hydraulic jacks

Hydraulic jacks, as the name implies, run on liquid. These jacks are different in design and feature an actuator. Its main bearing elements: a body extendable piston (plunger) and a working fluid (usually hydraulic oil). The housing is a guide for the piston cylinder and a reservoir for the working fluid. Strengthening of the crank handle is transmitted through the lever on the fuel pump. When moving up liquid from the reservoir is fed into the cavity of the pump and is pumped into the pressing cavity of the working cylinder, pushing the plunger.

The advantages of hydraulic jacks include rigidity, stability, smoothness, braking precision, large capacity, compact, little effort on the drive handle, high efficiency (0.75-0.8). Hydraulic device allows you to lift loads with a minimum height of almost a base structure. It expands the scope of its application as compared with the mechanical jacks. Disadvantages are quite significant as well: low speed, low altitude ascent in one working cycle, design complexity. Another difficulty is inability to accurately adjust the height lowering. Furthermore, such jack is subjected to way more serious breakages in comparison with mechanical lifting devices. In addition, this type of equipment is offered at a considerably higher price.