Law Enforcement & Resolving Conflicts
Experts are convinced that the situation where the rights can not be implemented, or protected, it is much worse than when the rights are not provided at all. Authors, developers and other rights holders invest in their efforts basing on certain expectations. If they are not met, not only damage is done to the creativity, but to innovation and social order as well.
Particular attention is paid to online violations, the phenomenon that acquired a mass character, because innovators fear that masses may be the main reason behind the collapse of their business or concept.
The scale of violations is associated with ease and free copying/distribution of products, sufficient anonymity activities on the Internet, as well as the confidence of many users that their specific actions are lawful. Thus, according to a study Consumer Focus and UMIP, University of Manchester branch responsible for intellectual property consulting and management, published in February 2014, 70% of consumers do not know that copyright law allows to copy or record. 44% peer-to-peer users are convinced that their actions are lawful. And many do not think piracy is an ethical problem.
Estimates of the level of piracy in different researchers is very different, because the common techniques are not developed and set in a place yet, so to their results should be treated with caution. According to the report of Digital Music Nation in 2013, the volume of illegal downloading of music in the UK accounted for 62% of total downloads, while the report MidemNet as of 2010 claims the level of pirated downloads is estimated at 13%.
The report contains a table of data on levels of piracy, collected by different researchers, showing that in relation to other intellectual property agreement is not reached. Here are some figures.
- The level of piracy of feature films, television programs:
– 2010: 14% of users illegally download movies and software over P2P services;
– 2008-09: 29% of consumers watch pirated DVD, 21% download illegal files.
- With respect to games software:
– 2008-09: 14-16% of users, respectively, forwarding (file-sharing) illegal files;
– 2007-08: In Europe, 40-35% of users, respectively, own at least one illegal copy of the game.
- With respect to books
– 2010: 10% of total sales in the US fell to counterfeit copies.
- With respect to illegal content in general:
– April 2011: more than 45 million unique users per month downloads pirated content from the 15 most popular torrent sites;
– 2010: a year were more than 778 million copyright infringement in the digital environment;
– 2008-09: from 34% to 70% of world traffic accounted for the transfer of illegal content, depending on the region.
The overall impact of piracy on the economy is very difficult to estimate, since, as already mentioned, there is no authoritative methods, no exact figures. However, the researchers took into account all the available reports and calculated the approximate average values. The results are the following: the total for the UK and for the EU and for the world as a whole, as for copyright infringement, account for less than 0.1% of the total economic activity. A total share of infringements of intellectual property accounts from 0.1% to 0.5% of economic activity. As you can see, these figures are neither too small nor too large.
In comparison with other countries, the piracy rate in the UK is relatively low: the share of downloading illegal content is around 15%, whereas, for example, in China the figure reaches about 70%.
If we evaluate the losses from piracy are not in total economic activity, and in the creative areas of production, it is possible to take into account authoritative study Business Action to Stop Counterfeiting and Piracy (BASCAP): it concluded that the damage caused by piracy is 1.24% the total contribution of the main industries related to copyright in the UK. The authors considered the report and believed that this figure is the maximum limit of the possible range, while the average value is much less.