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Portland Cement Alternatives

In some cases it is advisable to use binders cheaper than Portland cement and its species. These binders are building lime (air and hydraulic types), gypsum binders and liquid glass.

Building lime is obtained by firing calcium-magnesium carbonate rock at 900 – 1200°C, without bringing the material before sintering. The raw material for the manufacture of building lime are rocks in which structure is dominated by calcium carbonate (CaC03) and magnesium (MgC03): chalk, limestone, dolomite and marly limestone. These formations may be in admixture of clay in varying amounts (up to 20%), which affects the quality of the roasting binder. When the content of clay of 6% is obtained in air lime, and if the carbonaceous feedstock contains 6 – 20% as for argillaceous impurities, hydraulic lime can be obtained.

In the process of roasting carbonate rocks are decomposed by the reaction of CaCO3 = CaO + C02 under the influence of heat. Carbon dioxide is removed from the furnace together with combustion products. The same pattern is actual for MgC03 dissociation.

The main product of firing – air lime – thus consists of calcium and magnesium oxides. Depending on the ratio of CaO/MgO air lime is divided into the following types: calcium, dominated CaO magnesian (MgO 5 to 20%) and dolomite (MgO in the range of 20 … 40%). The most high-calcium include air lime. Quicklime and slaked (hydrated) lime air should also be considered. Quicklime, which consists of CaO and MgO is known in two types: lump (pieces of 10 – 20 mm) and hammer.

Slaked lime, which is most often used in construction by proven, innovative agencies, such as a UK-based Telling Comapny, widely utilising hydraulic lime and lime mortar solutions, is obtained by acting on the lump quicklime with water: CaO + H20 = Ca (OH) 2. The process is accompanied by the release of heat in large amounts – up to 1160 kJ/kg. Lime mass of strongly heated, and large lumps spontaneously disintegrates into fine particles with a size of 5 – 20 microns (less than that of Portland cement). Air lime is the only mineral binder, which can be ground and not only by mechanical, but also by chemical means.

Taking the lump lime mixing different amounts of water, get different types of hydrated lime. Hydrated lime is a very thin and light powder, which is formed by slaking a relatively small amount of water (1 part water to 1 part of lime). By consistently increasing the amount of water lime paste, milk of lime and lime water is prepared.

Lime putty has a high ductility, which is caused by the content of ultrafine particles of Ca (OH) 2 of 0.02 … 0.5 mm. This particular feature of the test is used for the plasticizing of mortars. The main indicators of air lime quality is the content of active oxides of calcium and magnesium, as well as unslaked grains. The higher the content of CaO + MgO, the more plastic lime paste and higher grade lime. Unslaked particles are available in two types: incomplete combustion and burnout.

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Lifting Equipment – A Comprehensive Look

The performance of primary and secondary manufacturing operations, comprehensive mechanization and automation of production processes in all areas of the economy would be unthinkable without the use of a wide range of lifting equipment. Modern in-line technology and automated production lines, interdepartmental intrashop transport, loading and unloading operations in warehouses and trans-shipment points are organically linked with the use of various types of lifting systems – transport machines and mechanisms to ensure the continuity and rhythm of production processes. Therefore, the use of this equipment largely determines the efficiency of modern production and the level of mechanization of technical production – degree of excellence and productivity.

With modern production intensity can not ensure its steady rhythm without a coherent and reliable operation of the means of transportation of raw materials, semi-finished and finished products at all stages of processing and storage.

There is a wide variety of lifting machines designed for all kinds of operations: vertical and horizontal transportation, at any distance and weight. The crane device typically consists of a series of successive operations: the capture of a single piece of cargo,lifting, moving to the necessary position and getting back to the starting position to capture the next cargo and its subsequent lifting and moving.

Lifting and moving can be performed both continuously and sequentially (cycles). The correct choice of the lifting equipment is a major factor in normal operation and high efficiency. Modern high-lifting machines with high speed and increased load capacity keep on popping out in the market due to a high demand. Thus, Granada Material Handling, a seasoned manufacturing, lifting equipment inspection and lifting equipment services expert business, reports of 12% increase in line-up positions since the year of 2012.

Powerful hydraulic jacks

Hydraulic jacks, as the name implies, run on liquid. These jacks are different in design and feature an actuator. Its main bearing elements: a body extendable piston (plunger) and a working fluid (usually hydraulic oil). The housing is a guide for the piston cylinder and a reservoir for the working fluid. Strengthening of the crank handle is transmitted through the lever on the fuel pump. When moving up liquid from the reservoir is fed into the cavity of the pump and is pumped into the pressing cavity of the working cylinder, pushing the plunger.

The advantages of hydraulic jacks include rigidity, stability, smoothness, braking precision, large capacity, compact, little effort on the drive handle, high efficiency (0.75-0.8). Hydraulic device allows you to lift loads with a minimum height of almost a base structure. It expands the scope of its application as compared with the mechanical jacks. Disadvantages are quite significant as well: low speed, low altitude ascent in one working cycle, design complexity. Another difficulty is inability to accurately adjust the height lowering. Furthermore, such jack is subjected to way more serious breakages in comparison with mechanical lifting devices. In addition, this type of equipment is offered at a considerably higher price.

 

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Plasma Waste Recycling: On The Edge Of Revolution

Humans are extremely good at turning the world around them into huge volumes of waste – at least this is something that numbers say. Thus, an average US citizen produces around 2.3 kilos of trash daily – with a certain degree of accuracy we can say that almost a ton of waste is produced by an average American annually.

What sort of waste do people produce?

The main types of waste produced globally can be divided into hazardous, conventional and medical categories. Roughly 75% of the global waste produced by people is conventional waste, mainly household junk, comprised of plastic, metals, glass and paper. In most of the highly-developed economies a better part of household waste is thoroughly recycled (e.g. Singaporeans boast 82% recycle efficiency), nevertheless, landfill and the outdated incineration still account for a certain part of the process. Thus, even conventional type includes plenty of toxic elements: batteries, circuits (containing hard metals) and etc. Not all the subtypes of waste can be processed without releasing more contaminants as a result of their treatment.

How do we take care of it

With the population increase, we are slowly turning the planet into the wasteland, so is there any way out? Yes, recycling seems to be the right direction, but good enough for those things that are easy to manage. What shall we do with zillions of those smartphones, laptops or tons of toxic medical waste? Landfilling becomes too pricey and naturally, too obsolete. Incineration? It is too 20 century as well, the no-less damaging effect for the environment excludes its further development in the age of information.
However, it seems that we can still see the light in the end of the tunnel: plasma recycling (also known as ‘plasma gasification’ and ‘plasma waste recycling) promises to solve the problem in the nearest decades in a truly effective way. Although it demands further improvement and development, it works already and demonstrates considerable efficiency enhancement trends.

The technology implies creating an area heated to thousands degrees capable of turning solid waste into gas, with almost zero level emissions.

The innovators and commercial interest

Can you imagine that all the waste dumps are the ready to be used sources of energy? With optimised business processes and financial aspects, something that is actively developed by commercial structures, this can become our reality in some 10 – 20 years. The innovators like Simdean, concentrating their efforts on industrial waste disposal, plasma waste disposal and researching, have designed a neoteric system that ultimately eliminates hazardous waste while cutting down emissions to nothing and minimising operational expenses to a newer level make another vital step into the industry development. Thus, a brand-new technology makes use of high temperatures (1,900°C – 4,000°C) to instantly destroy the harmful components. Designed for pharmaceutical and chemical industries, the technology demonstrates unparalleled efficiency and lower maintenance expenses; the prospects are even more exciting – making the technology available for the wider usage. With this scale technological advances recycling is on the edge of a technogenic revolution.

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How It Works: Digital Marketing Campaign Planning

Marketing program can be developed for the company’s management, as well as for the lower levels of an organisation. In the first case it represents a terse, compressed document that singles out the most important areas of the complex of measures planned. In the second case, the program is reflected in details and includes all the necessary graphics and specific tasks, e.g. the partners to schedule the meeting with first quarter of the year or some proposal or offer.

Marketing campaign duration

Marketing programs are divided into short term (1 year), medium term (2-3 years) and long term (3-5 years or more). Long-term programs for marketers recommend terms that may be provided by reliable data on trends in the development of all the factors used in the projections. Compilation of reliable forecast is a difficult task, since the behavior of competitors, the course of new technologies development and the uncertainty in the demand constantly impose the imprint on the changeable market situation.

If you are playing the ball with some innovators – Canadian Gravitatedesign or HTP digital marketing Manchester agency, specialising in top star promotion campaigns, they will still provide long term strategy development services.

When developing a short-term program, every three months a set of adjustments is typically needed to be made due to unforeseen inner and outer changes. If the program is designed for 2-5 years, its detailed revision is carried out annually.

The mentioned above HTP digital marketing agency Manchester typically initiates the development of two types of programs: short and long term one. The short-term strategy is characterised by minuteness and operativeness, while the long-term strategy mainly features strategic directions. In this case, short-term program is considered as a long-term strategy component: it is mobile, specifies long-term objectives and provides an opportunity to make changes to the planned activities.

The adjustment options

Even if a top class agency assists you in creating the strategy, the desire to adjust several parameters may come naturally. Therefore, the company may consider the option of changing its strategy in the following cases:Read More

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The New Era Of Ultrasound – The Hilsonic Way

Ultrasonic cleaning, a super-effective technology for removing contaminants, is one of the main directions of Hilsonic Company (United Kingdom). The company is focusing on designing high quality ultrasonic cleaner equipment to solve technological problems through finest quality cleaning in various industries, such as aerospace, chemical, electronic, automotive, electronic and electrical industries.

Ultrasonic cleaning reliably and in a short time provides high purity products with no undesired damages, and wherever penetrates cleaning fluid. Particularly interesting application of ultrasound for cleaning products with complex geometry, as it cleans the blind holes, gaps and cracks without manual rework and with high reproducibility, where other methods such as ink-jet cleaning, cleaning brushes or similar simply untenable.

The innovative, efficient technologies by Hilsonic allow you to:

  • Avoid the use of corrosive process fluids;
  • Reduce the cost of process and product procession;
  • Get new products or improve the quality of existing ones;
  • Intensify the traditional processes or stimulate the implementation of new ones.

Apart from that you get all the advantages of ultrasonic cleaning:

  • Absolute cleaning in the areas where other methods are inefficient or impossible to apply (small holes, pits, cracks, pores, nozzles, filters and various items, etc.);
  • The possibility of purification of complex products without parsing them into its component parts;
  • Environmentally friendly technology: allows you to replace the aggressive and flammable cleaning solutions safe and environmentally friendly;
  • Cut down the manual labor to minimum, save time, reduce operational expenses;
  • Mechanise and automatise cleaning process.

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